This section is a list of mobile industry terms and acronyms found on the MMA Website.

For more relevant and specific definitions, commonly found in various NZ based Mobile Codes and carrier contracts...
refer to: Mobile Definitions and Terms


The first generation of wireless services which were mostly analogue and included technology standards such as AMPS.


Also known as Personal Communications Services (PCS), second generation wireless service refers to the digital mobile phone technologies that emerged and were deployed during the 1990's, delivering both voice and data transmissions. 2G technology standards include Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), and (Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM). It also offers auxiliary services such as data, fax and SMS.


The third generation wireless service promises to provide high data speeds, always-on data access and greater voice capacity. The high data speeds enable full motion video, high-speed internet access and video-conferencing, and are measured in Mbps. 3G technology standards include UMTS, based on WCDMA technology (quite often the two terms are used interchangeably) and CDMA2000, which is the evolution of the earlier CDMA 2G technology. UMTS standard is generally preferred by countries that use GSM network. The data transmission rates range from 144 kbps to more than 2 mbps.

Acquisition Rate

Percentage of respondents who opted in to participate in a mobile initiative/campaign. Acquisition rate = total participants/total audience.

Advertisement Action

Any activity associated with a Advertisement that enables interactivity and communication between the advertiser and the consumer. For example, common actions include clicking on a phone number to call the advertiser, a hyperlink that takes the consumer to an advertiser's mobile web portal, or a link that adds the advertiser's contact information to the consumer's phone book.


An organisation that acts as a middleman between application and content providers, and mobile carriers. Provides message traffic throughput to multiple wireless operators or other aggregators; provides mobile initiative campaign oversight, and administration, as well as billing services


The number of connected minutes consumed by a mobile subscriber while placing and receiving calls on his/her mobile phone. Carriers calculate customer bills based on airtime minutes used during a specifc period of time.


Notifications, typically in the form of a text or multimedia message, containing time-sensitive information (event details, weather, news, services updates) that are pushed to a mobile subscriber who has opted-in to receive this information. Note: If the mobile subscriber has not opted in to receive said information, the notifcation would be considered a SPAM message.


An application programming interface (APIspecifies how software components should interact with each other. In practice, most often an API is a library that includes specifications for routinesdata structuresobject classes, and variables. An API specification can take many forms, Modica's API is here: SOAP- API docs

Application Originated (AO)

A text or multimedia message sent from a network based mobile application, typically to a handset.

Average Revenue Per User (ARPU)

A commonly used financial benchmark to measure the average revenue generated by a mobile carrier's mobile subscriber, or "user."

Call to Action (CTA)

A statement or instruction, typically promoted in print,web, TV, radio, on-portal, or other forms of media (often embedded in advertising), that explains to a mobile subscriber how to respond to an opt-in for a particular promotion or mobile initiative, which is typically followed by a Notice (see Notice).

Character Limit

A standard GSM-03.38 text message is 160 characters long. If the message is longer than that, it will concatenate and be sent as 2 messages. Any charge that applies to the message will therefore be charged twice. If the message is longer than that, the first message reduces to 153 characters, and the remaining characters roll into a second message (concatenation). The reason for this is that the concatenation information is contained within the UDH and uses space within the SMS payload when concatenation occurs.

A standard non GSM-03.38 character text message (e.g. contains Unicode UCS-2 characters like Chinese or Arabic) is 70 characters. If the message is longer than that, the first message reduces to 67 characters, and the remaining characters roll into a second message.

Modica can deliver full GSM 0.038 Extended character set, excluding the following characters : ¤¡§|

Common Shortcode (CSC)

Short numeric numbers (typically 4~6 digits) to which text messages can be sent from a mobile phone. Wireless subscribers send text messages to common short codes with relevant keywords to access a wide variety of mobile content.

Confirmed Opt-in

The process used for verifying a mobile subscriber's intention, and for gaining the subscriber's explicit agreement to participate in a mobile program/ initiative.

Content Aggregator

An organization that contracts with an array of content providers, and redistributes licensed content.

Content Provider (CP)

A company that creates and offers content, e.g. graphic products, ringtones, games, news, information and entertainment services, etc.

Content Service Provider (CSP)

A company that services the delivery of other peoples content. e.g. Modica would be considered a Content Service Provider, as we dont generate the content, but we deliver it on behalf of our customers.

Dedicated Short Code

When a client acquires a single shortcode of their own, for the purposes of running one or more of their own services. (ie not shared by other companies)

Delivery Receipt

An acknowledgement /notice/report of a successful MO/MT billing.

Double Opt-in

The process of confirming a mobile subscriber's wish to participate in a mobile program by requesting the subscriber to opt-in twice, prior to engaging the subscriber. A requirement for premium and many other types of mobile services.

EMS (Enhanced Messaging Service)

EMS is a halfway house between SMS and MMS, providing some of the features of MMS (e.g. formatted text, simple pictures, simple audio such as ringtones, and even some animation). EMS is a technology that is designed to work with existing networks, but will ultimately be made obsolete by MMS. EMS messages that are sent to devices that do not support it will be displayed as SMS transmissions.


A person who accesses and uses a product. (e.g. a user who watches a video using their mobile device).

Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC)

A mobile device that supports both carrier network and WiFi and can switch between each seamlessly.

Free to End User

An FTEU program is any program to which the subscriber opts-in, with the result that the subscriber receives Mobile Terminated (MT) SMS/MMS messages for which they do not incur any premium or standard messaging charges from their wireless carrier. The subscriber may interact with the service by sending SMS/MMS messages (including, but not limited to, messages for the purpose of opt-in, opt-out and requesting help). The wireless carrier may, at their discretion, charge the subscriber at standard messaging rates for Mobile Originated (MO

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)

GPRS optimizes the existing GSM networks. Packet data transfer via GPRS networks is four times as fast than GSM networks. It therefore allows the transmission and viewing of images (still or animated), multi-media messages, and e-mails… GPRS enables targeted customer invoicing (per used amount of kilo bytes).

GSM (Global System for Mobile communication)

GSM is a European standard for digital transmissions, in the mobile phone industry. Also called 2nd generation and officially used in 1987, this standard is the most frequently used worldwide. This technology uses two bandwidths with a 900 to 1800 MHz frequency and is able to transmit voice as well as data.

Information on Demand (IOD)

Content delivered in the form of an Alert. Subscriber receives updates of weather, traffic, horoscopes, jokes of the day, etc via SMS text, at a predetermined time and frequency.

Inter-operable Messaging

The ability for mobile subscribers to exchange text and multimedia messages across different mobile operator networks. Also used to refer to a Common Short Code that is registered on multiple mobile operators' networks.


A word or name used to distinguish a targeted message within a Short Code Service.

MMS (Multimedia Message Service)

MMS enhances text messages adding pictures, graphic designs, vocal or audio samples and video. Recent multi-media mobile phone devices have now expanded capacities, making MMS exchange easier: imbedded digital cameras and video cameras, memory size, navigation… All sounds cool, except.. In NZ the carriers will not let third parties use the MMS platforms. So MMS is available to vodafone customers directly, and telecom customers directly but not to Premium 3rd Party partners (yes, that would be Sonic) customers. :)

MO or MT Billing

The tagging of a tariff to the MO or MT SMS message of a PSMS service for billing purposes.

MO Premium Service

It refers to services or applications on a shortcode, with access to end users where there is a charge on the MO.

Mobile Advertising

A form of advertising that is communicated to the consumer/target via a handset.This type of advertising is most commonly seen as a Mobile Web Banner (top of page), Mobile Web Poster (bottom of page banner), and full screen interstitial, which appears while a requested mobile web page is "loading." Other forms of this type of advertising are SMS and MMS ads, mobile gaming ads, and mobile video ads (pre, mid and post roll).

Mobile Internet

Mobile Internet means having access to websites, content, or specific mobile phone functionalities through WAP. Thanks to Mobile Internet, consumers may, at any time, reach any content anywhere in the world.

Mobile Marketer

All companies within the mobile ecosystem, including: Advertisers, Aggregators/Distributors, Carriers, Content Providers and Publishers.

Mobile Marketing

The use of wireless media as an integrated content delivery and direct response vehicle within a cross-media or stand-alone marketing communications program.

Mobile Multi-media

Mobile multi-media includes the access to Mobile Internet and MMS exchange.

Mobile Originated Message (MO)

An SMS/ MMS message sent from a mobile device.

Mobile Station International ISDN Number (MSISDN)

Uniquely identifies a wireless device within a wireless carrier's network. The MSISDN is dialled from other wireless or wireline networks to direct a signal to a specific wireless device. MSISDNs can be electronically checked to help prevent fraud.

Mobile Terminated (MT)

An SMS/ MMS message received to a mobile device.

Mobile web

The Mobile Web is a channel for delivery of web content,which offers and formats content to users in awareness of the mobile context. The mobile context is characterised by the nature of personal user information needs (e.g. updating your blog, accessing travel information, receiving news update), constraints of mobile phones (i.e. screen size, keypad input) and special capabilities (i.e. location, connection type such as 3G or WLAN).

Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)

Standard for telephony messaging systems that enable the sending of messages that include multimedia objects (images, audio, video, rich text). May or may not include normal text.

Number Portability

The requirement set forth by federal legislation that allows consumers of mobile communication services to retain their mobile phone numbers for as long as they wish, even if/when they change mobile service providers. Legislation was passed to stop the requirements by carriers to change phone numbers each time the consumer switched carriers.

Off Portal (Off deck)

Point of sale/access on the mobile network, but outside of the carrier's "walled garden"/ portal/ deck, where consumers can access/ purchase information and mobile products/ content/ utilities.

On Portal (On deck)

Point of sale/ access within the carrier's "walled garden"/ portal/ deck where mobile customers can access/ purchase information and mobile products/ content/ utilities.

Opt - in

The process where a Subscriber provides explicit consent, after receiving Notice from the Mobile Marketer.

Opt - out

The process through which a Subscriber revokes consent after receiving Notice from the Mobile Marketer. An example of an Opt-out process includes, but is not limited to, a Subscriber replying to an SMS message with the phrase "stop."

Opt-out Mechanism

A process by which a Subscriber may exercise his or her right to Opt-out.


A method of distributing new software updates to cell phones or provisioning handsets with the necessary settings with which to access services such as WAP or MMS.

Pay-per Download

The mobile subscriber selects the content or service he/she wants, and is billed only for the product requested. The content is often presented in print with separate order codes for each download, or through a browse-and-buy WAP site on the phone. There is no further billing of the mobile subscriber until more content is requested.

Premium Billing

The ability to bill above standard SMS/ text rates.

Premium content

Content for which the provider levies a charge separate and in addition to any fixed charges made by the network operator to access that content.

Premium Rate

Services or messages that result in charges above and beyond standard text messaging charges normally applied to the subscriber's wireless bill.

Premium Rate Service

A program that requires double opt-in where the subscriber is billed above the standard SMS rate as per his/her mobile plan.

Pull Messaging

Any content sent to the wireless subscriber upon request, shortly thereafter, on a one time basis. For example, when a customer requests the local weather from a WAP-capable browser, the content of the response, including any related advertising, is Pull Messaging.

Push Messaging

Any content sent by or on behalf of advertisers and marketers to a wireless mobile device at a time other than when the subscriber requests it. Push Messaging includes audio, short message service (SMS) messages, e-mail, multimedia messaging, cell broadcast, picture messages, surveys, or any other pushed advertising or content.

Revenue Share (Rev Share)

Each party behind the mobile marketing initiative splits the revenue derived from the mobile marketing program.

Revenue Share Percentage

The designated percentage share of revenue to which a stakeholder/rights holder is entitled based on revenue sharing agreements, etc. Applies to revenue collected from the sale and distribution of content, programming, services and other revenue-generating property.

Service Activation

The status of which a mobile program/service can be activated post the mobile carriers' program approval and the necessary UATs.

Service Discovery

The method by which a consumer finds content of interest. Service discovery falls into on-handset (on-line) or off-handset (off-line) methods. On-line includes browsing menus, direct URL entry, person-to-person recommendation, ad banners or search. Off-line includes printed access methods such as sending a text keyword to an SMS short code. Offline discovery is assumed to be valid for users across multiple mobile networks.

Service Provider

A third party that performs or assists in the performance of a function or activity involving the use or disclosure of Personally Identifiable Information or Non-Personally Identifiable Information on behalf of a Mobile Marketer.

Shared Short code

A short code that is utilized to run multiple mobile services and/or marketing campaigns simultaneously.

Short Message Peer- to-Peer Protocol (SMPP)

A telecommunications industry protocol for exchanging SMS messages between SMS peer entities such as short message service centers (SMSC). It is used primarily for connecting third-party services with SMSCs to enable various types of automated SMS services.


A Shortcode is a number (like a phone number) obtained by application to the NZ Carriers (or internationally through MBlox to specified countries). In NZ the codes are 3 or 4 digits long and identifies a MO PREMIUM service on our gateway. This number has to be obtained on BOTH carriers independantly in order to service all mobile users in NZ.

Single Opt-in

When a mobile subscriber opts in to a program via a subscriber-initiated message to a service provider as prompted by the terms of the program. E.g., when a subscriber texts JOIN All BLACKS to a short code, that subscriber is opting in to the service.

SMS (Short Message Service)

Text messages sent from one mobile phone to another, or from an application to a mobile. Each SMS can contain as much as 160 characters.

SMS Center (SMSC)

The network entity in the mobile carrier's telecommunications network which switches, stores and routes SMS traffic.

SMS MO (Short Message Service Mobile Originated)

It refers to the SMS that originates FROM the mobile handset.

SMS MT (Short Message Service Mobile Terminated)

It refers to the SMS sent TO the mobile handset.

Spending Cap Limits

A ceiling limit placed on a particular subscription program which the content provider can bill the subscriber.

Standard Rate

Programs or messages that result in only normal text messaging charges being applied to the mobile subscriber's wireless bill or that result in messages being deducted from a subscriber's messaging plan allowance.


Product or services initiated by a mobile subscriber to receive content on an ongoing basis, typically with periodic premium billing events. It is not a one-time usage service.

Subscription Billing Renewal Message

A message sent to a participating subscriber before the program/subscription is renewed which contains the following: 1) the name of the service, 2) the renewal details, 3) billing period and advice of charge for the program and 4) opt-out details.

Subscription service

Any program which the mobile subscriber opts-in to a program which results in the mobile subscriber passively incurs premium or standard charges over time for content delivery.

Unsolicited Messages

Commercial SMS or MMS messages sent to subscribers without seeking prior approval.


Process of opting out of a mobile subscription service/application.

Value Added Service (VAS)

Additional service which add value to those already available on the network.

Vanity short code

Specfically requested short code number. It spells out a content provider's name, brand, and an associated word or is an easy to recall number sequence, e.g. DISNEY=347639, or 88888.

Walled Garden

The service provider - for example, the mobile carrier - provides a restricted list of services to the consumer (deck/portal), but disables the ability of the consumer to access services outside of that list.

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)

WAP is one of the Mobile Internet protocols allowing an access to Internet via a mobile phone.

WAP Billing

A billing interface that enables third-party content to be charged directly to the subscriber account (i.e., not via an intermediate system such as PSMS). WAPbilling is usually delivered by the carrier as a whole sale offering of the billing scheme used for on-deck content purchase. The carrier retains a percentage of all transactions as its cost of billing.

WAP Pull

Where the user directly requests a mobile WAP site by entering a URL, or by entering the phone number on a content provider Web page

WAP Push

A specially encoded message which includes a link to a WAP address that allows WAP content to be pushed to the handset with minimum user intervention.

WAP Push messaging (SI)-Service Indication

The "SI" format supports a text parameter, which means the user will always recieve a URL as part of the message and the user must click the link to access the wap content.

WAP Push Messaging (SL)-Service Load

The “SL” format can be selected by including “WAPSL=1” as a URL parameter, and does not support a “Text” parameter. This means, the “SL” format was designed to tell the browser to connect to a URL without user intervention. However, for security reasons, most mobile phones will display a prompt before connecting to a URL.

Zero rated messages

Brand or marketer assumes payment for the standard rate message fee on behalf of the mobile subscribers.